Canadian Journal of Applied Sciences <p align="justify"><span style="font-size: 9pt;"> Canadian Journal of Applied Sciences (ISSN: 1925-7430) is an accredited online journal starred in 2011 and. The journal covers a wide range of life and biological sciences and publishes the accepted manuscripts yearly basis. The biological or life sciences comprised of study of life and organisms. Life sciences discoveries are helpful in improving the quality and standard of life, and have applications in health, agriculture, medicine, pharmaceutical and food science industries.</span></p> Consortium Publisher en-US Canadian Journal of Applied Sciences 1925-7430 <ol start="1"><li><strong>Copyrights</strong>:Authors who publish in ICDTD Incjournals retain copyright to their work. Submission of a manuscript to the respective journals implies that all authors have read and agreed to the content of the Covering Letter or the Terms and Conditions. It is a condition of publication that manuscripts submitted to this journal have not been published and will not be simultaneously submitted or published elsewhere.ICDTD Inc(Licensor) grants the author(s) a worldwide, royalty-free, non-exclusive, and non-commercial perpetual license to exercise the rights in the article published as stated below:</li><ol start="1"><li>All articles are published under the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided that the work is properly cited.</li><li>The authors retain the copyright of their published article. They will also have the right to:</li><li>Reproduce the article, to incorporate the article into one or more collective works, and to reproduce the article as incorporated in collective works;</li><li>Create and reproduce Derivative Works for educational purposes.</li><li>Distribute Copies</li></ol></ol>Any commercial application of the work, with prior agreement by the author, is exclusively granted to ICDTD Inc. PREDICTORS OF LATE PRESENTATION OF DIABETIC RETINOPATHY: A MISSED OPPORTUNITY FOR HEALTH SYSTEMS IN PAKISTAN <p>Diabetic retinopathy is one of the most common complications of diabetes which can lead to visual impairment or even blindness. However, early detection and prompt treatment can reduce the risk of visual impairment significantly. Therefore, it is important to detect the socioeconomic predictors of late presentation of diabetic retinopathy which was the objective of this study.</p> admin consortium Saad Alam Khan Abdullah Naeem Syed Midhet Nasim Syed Ali Hasan Naqvi Haleema Masud Copyright (c) 2022 Canadian Journal of Applied Sciences 2022-02-14 2022-02-14 12 1 9 10.21065/1925-7430.12.1 COVID-19 in PAEDIATRIC ONCOLOGY PATIENTS: INCIDENCE AND SEVERITY OF CLINICAL FEATURES IN CANCER VS. NON-CANCER PATIENTS <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>With the advancements in medical technology, it is now possible to treat deadly diseases like cancer. The drawback of these anticancer treatments is the significantly reduced host’s immune response, which makes these individuals more susceptible to infections. In this study, we analyzed the incidence and clinical features of COVID-19 infections among paediatric cancer patients, and the results were compared to those of non-cancer paediatric patients.</p> <p><strong>Method: This was an observational, retrospective cross-sectional study</strong>. For data gathering, patients' charts were retrospectively analyzed from March 2020 to Feb 2021, and the two groups (COVID-19 infections in paediatric cancer and non-cancer patients) were compared to analyze the incidence and severity of SARS-COV-2 infection and severity of clinical features. The Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the means of symptoms and severity of symptoms of two groups, keeping the <em>p</em>-value &lt;0.05 as significant.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>Out of the total study population (772), 618 patients were diagnosed with cancer. A total of 53 patients (6.8%) were reported positive for COVID-19, with the break of 35 (5.6%) cancer patients, and 18 (11.7%) non-cancer patients. The mean age of cancer patients with COVID-19 was 7.17 years (range 3-17 years) while of non-cancer patients was 10.6 years (range 2-17 years). 22 patients required hospitalization (62.85%) with an average length of stay of 4.45 days. There was a mortality of one cancer patient with COVID-19. In non-cancer patients, no hospitalization was required with zero mortality.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>COVID-19 is more common in the general pediatric population while the infection is more severe in pediatric cancer patients.</p> Bakht Jamal Quratulain Zafar Mir Rooh Ullah Jan Muhammad Tahir Aziz Copyright (c) 2022 Canadian Journal of Applied Sciences 2022-04-28 2022-04-28 12 10 17